UV (Ultraviolet)-absorbing dyes, which have the property of absorbing UV radiation in a specific wavelength range, have received a high level of interest. Notably, UV radiation is a form of electromagnetic radiation with high-energy. Side effects of prolonged exposure to UV radiation include premature skin ageing, skin cancer, etc. Compared to visible light, ultraviolet light has a shorter wavelength, ranging from 100 nm to 400 nm. The UV radiation can be divided into UVA, UVB and UVC according to the different wavelength range.
Fig.1 Ultraviolet (UV) spectrum and the damage to the skin
Ultraviolet-absorbing dyes are able to absorb ultraviolet ray with anti-UV finishing property as well as improve the light stability of organic dyes. Therefore, they have aroused great interests of chemists as it offers a powerful tool for the study of functional dyes.
An essential component of UV-absorbing dye is the UV absorber which selectively and strongly absorbs UV light and converts it into low-energy radiation. UV absorbers are introduced into dyes to obtain the corresponding UV-absorbing dyes. Depending on the functional groups of UV absorbers, UV dyes can be divided into the following categories.
Benzophenone UV absorbers are the most widely used UV absorbers with wavelengths of 290-400 nm. The benzophenone functional groups can be used as diazo or coupling components in azo dyes, and can also be incorporated into the dye structure through a bridging group.
Fig. 2 Benzophenone based disperse dyes
Phenyltriazine has an absorption wavelength of 270-380 nm with high absorption intensity and good safety. By introducing this functional group into dye structures, dyes with anti-UV function can be obtained, which are mainly divided into disperse and reactive dyes.
Fig. 3 Synthesis of monoazo disperse dyes containing a triazine photostabilizer
Benzotriazole UV absorbers can absorb UV radiation in the wavelength range of 300 nm-400 nm and are employed for the synthesis of UV absorbing dyes due to their advantages such as resistance to discoloration, low volatility and low toxicity. They are used to synthesize disperse dyes and polymerizable benzotriazole dyes.
Oxalanilide UV absorbing dyes have a strong absorption with wavelength from 280 nm to 320 nm. These UV-absorbing dyes have the property of anti-UV finishing function, improving light fastness and sublimation fastness of the original dyes.
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