Fluorescein is also a kind of widely used xanthene fluorescent dyes, which is hydroxyl substituted derivative of rhodamine. Due to the large extinction coefficient and high fluorescence quantum efficiency of fluorescein in aqueous solution, fluorescein is still one of the most widely used fluorescent dyes in modern biology, biochemistry and medical research, although the excitation and emission wavelengths of fluorescein are only in the visible region. Researchers can modify the structure of fluorescein to change its pKa, light stability, absorption and emission wavelength, so as to achieve better utilization value.
Fig.1 Chemical structure of fluorescein and derivatives
Fluorescein fluorophores are widely used in ion recognition probes, biomarker and other research fields due to its special photochemical properties.
Fig.2 Ca2+ fluorescent-enhanced probes based on PET mechanism
Fig.3 Chemical structure of fluorescein esters
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